The Physiological, Psychological Foundation and Advantage of Mental Arithmetic by Image of Zhusuan
Mental Arithmetic by image of Zhusuan is a calculation method by relying on the function of human’s brain an utilizing object image of abacus beads in brain through sense perception, imagination and memory, imitating Zhusuan method to complete changing pattern of numbers in mind. It is on the basis of Zhusuan, from Zhusuan and over Zhusuan. It is a development of Zhusuan. Therefore, the development of mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan is a new pass for further development of Zhusuan. Through the following brief description of physiology and psychology, we can search out the unique adaptability and advantage of mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan.
The human anatomy tells us that human’s brain can be divided into six parts : cerebrum, cerebrum in between, cerebellum, center cerebrum, bridge cerebrum and medulla oblongata. Centre cerebrum, bridge cerebrum and medulla oblongata are usually called cerebrum trund. Cerebrum is the most complicated part in nervous system and is the organ for psychology activities.
Human’s cerebrum is divided into left and right hemisphere. The research of psychology indicates that the shape of the two hemispheres is similar but the function is different. The left hemisphere has close relation with language ability and thinking activities and has the function of language, abstract though and logical reasoning. The right hemisphere is concerned with object thinking such as image and shape and has the function of model identification, shape sense, creative thought and intuition. Most people consider that the function of left hemisphere is dominant and the right hemisphere is not. The physiologists and psychologists generally consider that the potential of human’s right hemisphere needs to be exploited. The ideal method is to identically use the two hemispheres, let left hemisphere co-ordinate with the right hemisphere or let the right hemisphere influence the left hemisphere to make the two hemispheres coordinating each other.
By understanding the work division of the two hemisphere, we can better use and practice our brain. People always thought in the past that by improving the ability of language and reasoning, other abilities can be improved at same time. It seems at present that thinking is lopsided. Human must overally develop cerebrum, both left cerebrum and right cerebrum in order to continuously improve the capability of creation and nonlanguage thinking.
The psychology considers that there are two informations stored in human’s brain, i. e. figure and language. The figure is objective image and termed as idea by psychology. It has not only the characteristic of intuitivity and generality but also operability. This operability means idea can be arbitrarily rotated and changed, processing for ides. It is the operability of idea which makes image of Zhusuan is completed with image thinking guided by logical thinking. Its’ figure in brain is the abacus beads. It is the operability of idea which makes plus and minus of abacus beads being operable and calculation in brain. Meanwhile, it promotes the exploitation of the right half of cerebrum.
Functionally speaking, human psychological activity can be divided into activities of perception, emotion and will. Seen from the generated mechanism, it’s a function of brain and a reflection of objective reality. Perception activity means phenomenons shown during human perceiving objective things, including sense perception, consciousness, memory and thought, etc.
1. Sense perception
Sense perception is a brain reflection of individual characters of objective things which directly function in sense organs. It’s also a result of united activity of combined analyzers which are composed of three areas respectively corresponding to sense organs, in-transferring nerve and cerebral cortex. Sense perception is a subjective image of objective world, on one hand, it’s generated from subject, on the other hand, it’s reflection of objective existence. Sense perception can be divided into outer and inner perceptions, outer perception reflects individual characters of objective things, its receptor is on or near the surface of body. For instance, visual analyzer or receptor is retina, audio receptor is in inner ear. This kind of sense perception consists of visual sense, hearing sense and touching sense, etc.
For mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan, its objective things are numerals and abacus beads, it’s reception modes are reading calculation and glancing calculation, i. e. oral reading and visual glancing. The two modes respectively act on sense organs, through visual or hearing sense, passing on to relevant areas of cerebral cortex, changing static beads to moving beads, and reflecting processing and calculation of value assigned beads in brain.
Memory is mental reflection of past experience, and it’s one of the important functions of brain. It includes the following basic processes: identification, retention, re-identification (or re-perception) and reappearance (or memory), etc. These basic processes are interrelated. Identification and retention are the premise of re-identification and reappearance, while re-identification and reappearance are the result of identification and retention. Memory is a basic functional index, being a treasure house of human knowledge and experience. It’s of great significance in practical life. Only with memory, can experience be accumulated and expanded, can get previous and subsequent experiences related, and make psychological activity nor intellectual activity is possible. The image of objective things retained in memory is called memory ideas, or idea for short. The accumulation and enrichment of idea plays an important role on human activity of thinking, imagining, remembering as well as the process of mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan.
It is common that people usually think human memory and intelligence begin to decline after the age of 20. One of the reasons is based on the fact that neuron (cranial nerve cell) dies at the rate of 1,000 per day and cannot revive. It’s discovered by physiological research on memory that human memory capability is infinite. Human brain is composed if 10 to 14 billion neurons, even of 1,000 neurons die every day, the neuron loss during one’s life is less than 1% of the total number, so the influence on memory is negligible. In physiologists’ point of view, the more frequently brain is used, the more developed, intelligent and healthy brain becomes; on the contrary, if brain is not or seldom used, its aging and declining will be accelerated, Therefore, the relation among memory, intelligence and age is not absolute.
Thinking, which is the general, indirect reflection of objective things, belongs to advanced stage of perception. Thought is generated on perceptual knowledge, which is the source and basis of thinking activity. Through thinking, human perceptual knowledge of concrete objective things is ascended to rational knowledge, then concept is generated, and concept’s application analysis, generalization, inference and judgement gives rise to theoretical system.
Thinking of mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan is generated from perception of numeral combination, its form is similar to that of abacus type. Zhusuan psychologists think that Zhusuan thinking is realized through four stages : reception, selection, identification and instruction. What’s different is that the instruction of Zhusuan thinking is transformed from imagination on third stage, then the instruction is passed to behavior organ, so creative behavior is realized by moving up and down the beads in brain. But the mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan is utilizing the image in the mind, changes static beads to moving beads, and reflects the operation and calculation result of beads.
To sum up, mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan is realized by sense perception (hearing and visual sense), memory and other directly sense-perceived images, as well as thought in images under the instruction of logical thought, it has not only uniqueness different from other mental arithmetic, but also adaptability to physiological mechanism and psychological activity.
Some people have a point of view that to learn and apply mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan is only suitable for teenagers. The more above this age, the more difficult to learn. Certainly, teenagers are at their best ages to receive training of mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan. Due to various factors, the training is not so effective for adults. But just as above mentioned, there is no absolute relationship among memory, intelligence and age, learning and applying mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan should not be limited by ages.
Based on the above physiology and psychology analysis, we can see that mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan reflects both adaptability and the following main incomparable advantages over other mental arithmetic:
Since calculation works are important in every sections of social economic area, so the more developed the economy, the more important the calculation work is. Along with the establishment and development of market economy, calculation techniques, especially mental arithmetic, are increasingly important to more and more people in order to meet the needs for production, circulation and all calculations in our life.
Mental Arithmetic by image of Zhusuan is an important part of calculation work, it features quick calculation, high accuracy, good adaptability, wide spread application, little limitation, so it has extensive practicality. As long as having certain Zhusuan basis, mastering the Zhusuan characteristics and practicing hardly, one can master the mental arithmetic with high proficiency, so working and studying efficiency can be improved.
Cerebrum has huge potentiality. Encephala experts believe that only 5 to 15% of cerebrum functions have been utiliazed. Even Einstein, the great scientist, had only used 1/3 of his cerebrum. That is to say, 85 to 95% of potentiality of cerebrum have not been utilized. So how to cultivate and utilize potentiality of cerebrum is becoming more important. Right cerebrum is key to utilize the potentiality. How to develop and utilize the right cerebrum? Psychologist found that there are two ways to make cerebrum’s right and left hemispheres functions equal, thus two hemisphere can be used equivalently and ideally. One is pondering, it restrains cerebrum activities and improves communication between two hemispheres and makes the right hemisphere as functional as the left one. The other is training, while it focuses on developing practical technic relating to the right hemisphere. Mental Arithmetic by image of Zhusuan is the concrete reflection of the above two ways. Because of the potentiality of two hemispheres’ activities and adaptability of mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan is an effective way of developing and utilizing cerebrum’s potentiality.
3. Being beneficial to intelligence
The above physiology and psychology analysis illustrate that mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan not only develop learner’s logic thinking and image thinking ability, but also exercise brains, improve memory and promote thinking broadness, depth, quickness and flexibility. Scientific research indicates that the old people at the age of 60 – 70 could have quick minds just like young men if they frequently utilize their brain. On the contrary, the ageing of young men’s brain can be accelerated if they are lazy to exercise their brain.
Thinking is the core of intelligence, the stronger the thinking ability, the more developed the intelligence. Therefore, mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan is beneficial to improve intelligence, analysis and comprehension abilities.
4. Improving health, postponing ageing
Modern medicine research suggests that life is based on brain exercise, the decrepitude of human organism starts from cerebrum. In physiology, physical basis of intelligent is cerebrum, the most important way to improve cerebrum ability is to frequently utilize cerebrum, because cerebrum is the same as other organs, it get improved when being used, degenerated when not used. Through contact with many old people, I have found that some of them are greatly interested in Zhusuan and mental arithmetic, so they have quick and flexible minds and do not show obvious decline in memory. Although they have retired, they have a happy colorful and rich life.
The necessity and significance of developing mental arithmetic by image of Zhusuan can be best illustrated by its features of science and advantages. Mental Arithmetic by image of Zhusuan, basing itself on Zhusuan, creates conditions for further developing and improving of Zhusuan. The two things are closely connected to each other. Thus Zhusuan, the scientific inheritance of Chinese ancient culture, can be full of vigor and vitality.
Source: Senior Accountant Chen Qihong (China)
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